Heavens on Earth by Mark Holloway is great source for my research paper because it’s a comprehensive analysis of several utopian communities over many decades. Because the book is so comprehensive, I would consider it more of a secondary source which happens to be just what I’m looking for in terms of background information regarding the rise of utopian communities. Although specific references to and analyses of Brook Farm, in particular, were few and far between, Holloway covered many other similar utopian experiments and dug deep into aspects that made some successful and others unsuccessful.
Holloway proves that although utopian societies are very different in their ideals, goals, and varying levels of success, the recognizable continuity lies in the religious origins of the community. According to Holloway, utopian communities generally rise out of religion or a varying version of a religious sector. In particular, Brook Farm rose out of Unitarian ideals that George Ripley extracted after preaching Unitarianism. What makes Brook Farm different from other successful and unsuccessful utopian communities, it that members of were encouraged to practice whatever religion they chose to any degree they chose. Holloway also identifies the influence of Transcendentalism briefly, but fails to further elaborate.
Unlike the first source I used, Heavens on Earth conveys utopian communities as small scale versions of extremism, stemming from Socialist and Communist ideals. In this way, the source is weakened because Holloway makes this broad statement without addressing specific evidence. For instance, many ideologies of Brook Farm seem to parallel ideas of communism and socialism, it was neither truly a Communist, nor Socialist Community.
Holloway, Mark. Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America, 1680-1880. New York: Dover Publications, 1966. Print.
Holloway, Mark. Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America, 1680-1880. New Yok: Dover Publications, 1966. Front Cover. Print.