Response poem to In Just- by E.E. Cummings
Fairy world in old trees
Made in just a stump
On wet grass
Slipping and skipping
Made fairy gardens
From popsicle sticks and
When everything is fairy dust fixable
With the wet grass
And our slipping and skipping
WillaandWinifred come running
Swinging and dancing
Isn’t fairy dust fixable
I wrote this poem in the same sequence as Cummings in the sense that my stanza pattern reflects his. I repeated statements in all the places he did and tried to emulate the themes of childish wonder. When I read the poem, it reminded me of my summers working at a Spectrum Arts Camp. Every year, I work with the Fairy Gardening Class and they’re always the sweetest campers who loved pouring “fairy dust” everywhere–especially on me. Whenever girls were being nasty to each other, or were grumpy and tired the day after a swim meet, they would always tell me that fairy dust fixed everything. So I wrote the poem from the perspective of my Fairy Gardens Campers.
The first stanza is structured in the same way Cummings structured his and I set the scene. The girls always loved this dead tree that still had its branches cut off but was cut in such a way that was perfect for their fairy kingdom. The middle stanza in the original poem quotes the balloon man’s song but I chose “slipping and skipping” because one of my favorite pictures of camp were two girls in sundresses skipping through the grass almost slipping. I chose some of my most memorable campers to put together as Cummings did. In discussion I mentioned that I was certainly familiar with the fusion of names; I remember the girls’ words tumbling out in just that way. Rather than having the whimsical phrase “puddle-wonderful”, I used the phrase “When everything is fairy dust fixable” which, I promise, was just as cute when my campers said it. The final stanza strayed from Cummings’ structure a little but ended with the fairy dust line in the same way his repeated phrase were the final words.
Robert Frost’s The Gift Outright is a classic example of his folksy, lyrical poetry based on nature. Rather than the typical format of describing the scene around him though, he reflects on who the scene belongs to. His choice to make the first line a sentence makes the first phrase seem factual and sets a serious tone for the rest of the poem. His opening sentence reads, “The land was ours before we were the land’s” reminded me of “for you are dust, and to dust you shall return” introducing the interconnectedness between human life and the earth. Although I would like to believe this poem is meant to be about taking care of the earth and natural world, I think that it is written from the perspective of an imperialist. The consistent use of “ours” conveys the possessive nature of imperialists who claim the land as their birthright, their “Gift Outright”. The middle section of the poem addresses the aggressive theme of possessiveness of the earth. His repetitive use of “possessing” conveys the all-consuming greed that resulted from imperialism. “Possessed by what we now no more possessed” conveys that rather than cherishing the land, they were swallowed by their greed for something that was never theirs. In this way, the expansion of land made them “weak”. The weakness juxtaposes the idea that expansion creates strength. The combination of this contradiction and his deliberate choice not to punctuate creates a natural pause in the poem. “We were withholding from the land of the living” continues his rhythmic pattern of iambic pentameter and begins a series of alliterations that emphasize the consequence of greed. His second use of alliteration comes with “salvation in surrender” saying that the settlers were saved by their realization that wealth and prosperity was achieved not through pushing through progress, but by letting the earth do its work. That the earth was beautiful in its “unstoried and unenhanced”, pure form and would prove prosperous in time. Here he ends the poem with a classic ode to the beauty of nature in its untouched form, satirizing the idea that an industrial version would be preferable.
1954: Brown v Board of Education Topeka
1955: Montgomery Bus Boycotts
1955: Emmet Till is lynched
1956: Riots at University of Alabama
1957: Little Rock Nine
1957: SCLC is founded (with help from MLK Jr)
1960: SNCC is founded
1961: Albany Movement
1961: Freedom Rides
1963: Project Confrontation
Marianne Moore’s What Are Years? seems an example of her early works as it utilizes complex imagery and prosodic patterns, themes of her early poetry. My initial interpretation of the poem was that Moore split the poem into three sections to reflect three stages of life (emulating themes of the “Voyage of Life Series” by Thomas Cole). I interpreted the first stanza as “innocent” childhood, the second as “struggling” young adulthood/adulthood, and the third as acceptance of “mortality” in late life. However, further analysis makes me think otherwise.
The opening lines begin with Moore’s existential, “unanswered question” of what makes us courageous. She asks why, in times of “resolute doubt” we soldier on and go about life despite the challenges before us. Her phrasing here jumps out. The word “resolute” creates such a final and sad tone that contrasts her chilling, final lines of the stanza, “in its defeat, stirs/the soul to be strong”. Her choice to separate the phrase elongates and suspends the sentence, first emphasizing the two timid descriptors, “defeat” and “stirs” then the conflicting, powerful alliteration of “soul” and “strong”.
The second stanza is the narrative of vivid imagery of seeing “deep”, encapsulating the feeling of drowning and how she wrestles with the thought of death. Her choice of the word “accedes” creates rhythm in the stanza that causes a natural slowing of the poem until it picks up speed again with imagery of “imprisonment” and panic as death looms. The poem continues at this speed with struggling until the “sea in a chasm” occurs when suddenly she is flying above worry and has a revelation that mortality is what makes life worth living, what makes “continuing” worth it.
The third stanza uses the metaphor of the “imprisoned”, “caged” bird conjuring similar themes of Emily Dickinson’s Hope Is a Thing With Feathers. The bird “steels” his form straight up once again conveying vivid imagery of picking oneself up and moving on and even “mighty singing”. “Mighty” inspired me and created a lift and pause in the poem, conveying a newfound confidence and resolution. The ending lines are my favorite, though, contrasting the satisfaction of mortality and eternal joy. This perfectly wraps up the poem. I think that she tried to convey that one can spend their whole life trying to do everything right, outsmarting mortality and feeling satisfaction. But, they may never achieve true joy that lives longer than the human life as it can only be achieved through accepting mortality and making the most of it.
Emily Dickinson’s 320 deals with themes of death which is somewhat predictable for Dickinson, but what makes this poem different, is that this poem delves into the competing narratives of religious teachings and her personal instincts. 320 begins with imagery of attractive light but describes it as oppressive and of heft. Here she expresses the heavy weight that the light casts which I interpret as Heavenly imagery. The weight of heaven reflects the weight that death has on her mind (which is often the case for Dickinson). The last line of the stanza says that the light is “Of Cathedral Tunes” and at this point, she is contrasting the Church’s narrative of death and instincts of death. Here, she breaks her rhyme scheme (which is generally ABCB in this poem), reflecting her break from the church’s values. In the following stanza, she elaborates on her personal views of death, claiming that one who dies and goes to heaven with “Heavenly Hurt” (capitalized to imply that its a proper noun since it is religious imagery). Dickinson also claims that faith should be in tandem with soul searching, or “internal difference where Meanings are”. “Meaning” is capitalized here to create a pause for further emphasis as it is elaborated on later. The following stanza discusses her frustration with the church’s teachings, deeming it “Seal Despair”, implying that “none can teach” these meanings. The final stanza concludes with the personal experience of death. Dickinson says “the landscape listens-“. The hyphen suspends the phrase for a moment, reflecting nature’s pause to observe death. Then, the death goes “like the Distance”, proving that only in that time, can one truly find their own truth and meaning.
Baym, Nina, and Robert S. Levine, eds. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 8th ed. Vol. C. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2012. Print.
A full version of her poem can be found here
Jacob Riis’ Photographs were shocking and moving, as they displayed an unfiltered version of America’s past. Many times, we choose to tell our American story through the eyes of American exceptionalism; a “city on the hill” built by hardworking people. But the way that we built our infrastructure wasn’t so honorable because, in fact, it was built on the backs of the poor, working class.
Photograph found here
I found this photo particularly striking because we see a laborer in a poverty, displayed in the most unfiltered way. We see a tired and unhappy laborer. The caption tells us that this is where he lives and we are to infer that the belongings around him are all that he has. He is truly impoverished. He seems to be without access to showers or a way to clean himself, he is without a proper bed and seems only to have the clothes on his back. In this way, at least in my opinion, he is being denied basic rights.
What was most striking to me was the caption. The caption read “In sleeping quarters, Rivington Street Dump”. I had studied the picture first, trying to understand what was being portrayed until the caption caught my eye. I realized that not only is he living in extreme poverty, but he is living in a dump. I assumed he was living in a basement or out of a small room, when he doesn’t really have a “real” home. So then I went back to the picture and studied his face and that is where I found the true narrative. He is a poor, working class man. He looks tired and despondent, reflecting the feelings of other working class members as well. He is without a home, and seems to be, without a family.
Fredrick Douglas said that, sadly, his story wasn’t unique. In the same way, this laborer’s story is not unique in that many other working class people struggled in poverty and struggle. And that is precisely the type of American History that we often leave out.
Riis, Jacob. In Sleeping Quarters, Rivington Street Dump. N.d. How the Other Half Lives, n.p.
John Thomas Codman’s Brook Farm; Historic and Personal Memoirs was disappointing in that is seems to contain somewhat broad information regarding the Brook Farm, rather than a detailed experience. Admittedly, I haven’t read the entire book but from the chapters I chose, that most pertained to the culture of Brook Farm, I didn’t seem to glean very much new information. Codman restates much of what I have already read in other texts. However, this is not to say that this is necessarily a weak source, but one that is more secondary.
I did notice, however, that most every aspect of Brook Farm, reflected the communal ideals and the “back to nature” ideology. Throughout my research, I’ve noticed how deeply engrained community is in the Brook Farm culture, but I think I’ve started to grasp the extent after reading Codman’s memoir chapter. He discussed the “busy energy” of mealtimes where each and every person gathered. It seemed a time that everyone could connect and see the greater goal beyond themselves; community. Codman didn’t describe the communal mealtime as a requirement, but implied that it was certainly an expectation. Codman also described the simplistic lifestyle of Brook farm in which people labored, ate, and dwelled together without modern amenities, such as running water, or luxuries, such as ornate decoration. The walls were decorated with pictures of nature, or framed, dried leaves and flowers that reflected the simplicity of life at Brook Farm.
Codman, John Thomas. Brook Farm; historic and personal memoirs. Boston: Arena Pub. Co., 1894. Print.
Note: Image is simply the cover over Brook Farm; historic and personal memoirs
Heavens on Earth by Mark Holloway is great source for my research paper because it’s a comprehensive analysis of several utopian communities over many decades. Because the book is so comprehensive, I would consider it more of a secondary source which happens to be just what I’m looking for in terms of background information regarding the rise of utopian communities. Although specific references to and analyses of Brook Farm, in particular, were few and far between, Holloway covered many other similar utopian experiments and dug deep into aspects that made some successful and others unsuccessful.
Holloway proves that although utopian societies are very different in their ideals, goals, and varying levels of success, the recognizable continuity lies in the religious origins of the community. According to Holloway, utopian communities generally rise out of religion or a varying version of a religious sector. In particular, Brook Farm rose out of Unitarian ideals that George Ripley extracted after preaching Unitarianism. What makes Brook Farm different from other successful and unsuccessful utopian communities, it that members of were encouraged to practice whatever religion they chose to any degree they chose. Holloway also identifies the influence of Transcendentalism briefly, but fails to further elaborate.
Unlike the first source I used, Heavens on Earth conveys utopian communities as small scale versions of extremism, stemming from Socialist and Communist ideals. In this way, the source is weakened because Holloway makes this broad statement without addressing specific evidence. For instance, many ideologies of Brook Farm seem to parallel ideas of communism and socialism, it was neither truly a Communist, nor Socialist Community.
Holloway, Mark. Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America, 1680-1880. New York: Dover Publications, 1966. Print.
Holloway, Mark. Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America, 1680-1880. New Yok: Dover Publications, 1966. Front Cover. Print.
The article “Brook Farm” from the New England Magazine (Volume XVIII No. 4) backs my argument that Brook Farm was monumental event in social experimentation, changing the course of the functions of society.
The article seemed a general glance at Brook Farm, its ideals, and a description of its first settlers. However, the editorial was much more in-depth, making it a primary source rather than the secondary source I was hoping for. The editorial identifies Brook Farm’s founder (George Ripley), describes the (Unitarian/Transcendentalist) origins of Brook Farm, its education ideology, and paints the picture of the enormous property, the buildings, and the culture of their utopian lifestyle. The culture seemed the most researched part of the editorial. In some ways, Brook Farm was complex and detailed, but in other ways it was minimalist (the economic system and everyday life, respectively). Quotes from George Ripley, residents, and visitors enhanced the editorial and offered many perspectives that were further expanded upon in the by the author.
The editorial addresses the misconceptions of Brook Farm being a Communist or Socialist experiment, when in fact, Brook Farm was a utopian social experiment composed of “a company of teachers” who are “thoroughly happy”. This was the only section that the author’s bias was clear as he vehemently expresses his opposition to the idea that Brook Farm was a Communist or Socialist experiment. The only weakness I found in the editorial was this portion. The topic was addressed sporadically and not particularly clearly. Overall, though, the editorial was both meticulously researched and factual.
Citation of Editorial and Picture:
Cooke, George Willis. “Brook Farm.” New England Magazine Volume 0023 Issue 4 Dec. 1897: 391-407. Making Of America. Cornell University Library. Web. 7 Jan. 2017.
“We are soothed as we read; and withal is a calm astonishment that ideas so apparently obvious have never occurred or been presented to us before.”
Though Hawthorne’s literary works are often complex in their meaning and theme, his distinctive stylistic writing simplifies the text, yielding a more accessible and more interesting text. Hawthorne’s Wakefield, in particular, is a perfect example. Wakefield is written in a kind of conversational folklore. In other words, Hawthorne writes as though he is conversing with his reader and in doing so, he stays true to his theme of “twice-told tales”. In Poe’s critique of Hawthorne, Poe stated that, as readers, “We are soothed as we read”, which is true. Hawthorne sets the tone of ease by first conjuring an image of casual storytelling. Although he doesn’t explicitly set this scene, his conversation with the reader is similar to that of an elder telling a child a folktale. The first and most obvious example comes in his introductory paragraph. “In some old magazine or newspaper, I recollect a story, told as truth, of a man–let us call him Wakefield–who absented himself for a long time, from his wife”. Personally, I was able to connect and visualize the story immediately, settling into the twice-told tale/folktale. As the text continues, there are numerous examples of this in his questions such as “What sort of a man was Wakefield”, in his interjections “Let us now imagine Wakefield bidding adieu to his wife”, and exclamations “Wakefield! Whither are you going?” In addition, Poe states that Hawthorne’s distinct style extends to the way he presented his ideas. Poe recognized that through the progression of Hawthorne’s work, as Hawthorne would introduce new ideas, he presented his ideas as fact. Hawthorne introduced his ideas so persuasively, that the reader would think his ideas were obvious. Although Hawthorne doesn’t explicitly state his ideas, he certainly injects his thoughts on the story. “His fate was turning on the pivot”, “It is perilous to make a chasm in human affections”, and finally his conclusion that “individuals are so nicely adjusted to a system…and to a whole, that, by stepping by for a moment, a man exposes himself to a fearful risk of losing his place forever.” In essence, Hawthorne not only interjects his ideas in the text, but more clearly in his social observations that seem so plainly apparent in his style.
Find Poe’s original review of Hawthorne’s work here